West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633) 2023-01-23T18:30:38+00:00 WAJM Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Open Journal Systems <p><strong>WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY</strong></p> <p><strong>About The Journal</strong></p> <p>The West African Journal of Microbiology is a publication of the Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. It is focused on the rapid publication of original full-length research articles, short communication and review papers. The Journal will accept papers from all recognized fields of Microbiology, and other fields in an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach, provided that in each case the material is directly relevant to microorganisms. The following areas are covered in the Journal:</p> <ul> <li>Methods in Molecular Biology</li> <li>Physiology/Biochemistry</li> <li>Bioprocess Engineering</li> <li>Industrial Processes/New Products</li> <li>Medical Biotechnology</li> <li>Agro- and Food Biotechnology</li> <li>Genomics and Bioinformatics</li> <li>Microorganisms in the Built Environment</li> <li>Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases</li> <li>Artificial intelligence in Microbial Sciences</li> <li>Metagenomics and other omics technologies</li> <li>Biomining</li> </ul> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p>The WAJM aims at serving the scientific communities with original findings and reviews, with no fear or favour of conflicting interests.</p> <p><strong>Vision</strong></p> <p>The vision of WAJM is to be a reputable, multidisciplinary journal that disseminates high quality peer-reviewed research findings globally.</p> MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF DRUG RESISTANCE GENES IN CLINICAL SAMPLES OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM OBTAINED IN ZARIA, NIGERIA 2023-01-23T16:55:31+00:00 Gideon Yakusak Benjamin Benjamin Bartholomew Jabir Abdullahi Liman Mubarak Labaran <p>Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites that belong to the genus Plasmodium. It is a disease of public health concern in Nigeria, responsible for millions of deaths worldwide.This study aimed to carry out molecular analysis of drug resistance genes in clinical samples of Plasmodium falciparum in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 300 consenting participants were enrolled in this study from January to June 2019 at Hajiya Gambo Sawaba General<br>Hospital, Zaria. Blood samples were collected from them and screened for Plasmodium falciparum by RDT and confirmed by microscopy. The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify portions of pfmdr1, pfcrt, and pfkelch13 genes carrying known mutations associated with antimalarial drug resistance. Afterward, the pfcrt amplicons were sequenced and the closest matches to the nucleotide sequences were determined using the BLAST tool on the National<br>Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the relatedness between sequences was determined by creating a phylogenetic tree. The pfmdr1 gene was detected in 20% (3/15) of the samples while the pfcrt gene was also amplified successfully in five of the samples analyzed, giving a prevalence of 33.3% (5/15). The pfkelch13 was not amplified in all the 15 samples. The detection of segments of pfmdr1 and pfcrt genes harboring single Nucleotide Polymorphisms<br>associated with chloroquine resistance showed that the Plasmodium falciparum population in the study area may still be chloroquine-resistant. It is therefore recommended that Government should maintain the ban on the use of chloroquine for the treatment of falciparum malaria.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633) SEROPREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION AMONG DYSPEPTIC PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT BLOOD GROUPS SEEN AT AMINU KANO TEACHING HOSPITAL KANO, NIGERIA 2023-01-23T17:54:14+00:00 Aishatu Ibrahim Aminu Binta Muhammad Aminu Rabi’a Ahmed <p>Helicobacter pylori remain one of the most common bacteria associated with some gastrointestinal diseases and the ABO antigens are increasingly gaining biological significance as they may be associated with predisposition to or protection from many diseases. The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of H. pylori among dyspeptic patients of different blood groups with various gastrointestinal symptoms. Blood samples were collected from one hundred and fifty dyspeptic individuals and subjected to a one-step immune-chromatographic rapid test for the detection of antibodies (IgG) against H. pylori. The blood group of the samples was determined using the conventional haemagglutination technique and the result revealed that 114 (76%) of the blood samples were seropositive against H. pylori and females had a higher seroprevalence rate of 76.34% than males (75.44%). Generally, patients aged 31-45 years had the highest seroprevalence rate of 80.5%. The result also revealed that patients with blood group O+ had the highest seroprevalence (45.6%) of IgG antibodies against H. pylori. The study identified that a significant number of dyspeptic patients in the study area had H. pylori infection and that majority were of the blood group O. The study concludes that blood group O may be a predisposing factor in the establishment of H. pylori infection.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633) PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN BOSSO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA 2023-01-23T18:11:34+00:00 Audu Danladi Passi Sodangi Abdulkarim Luka Iliya Shehu Ndams Ezekiel Kogi <p>The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among primary school children in Bosso Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria was investigated in this study. A total of 600 pupils from 10 primary schools comprising 300 males and 300 females were enrolled in the study. A&nbsp; structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on the demographic data of children and risk factors for gastrointestinal parasitic infection. The stool was analysed using the formol-ether concentration technique. The overall prevalence was 45.2% (271/600); thirteen intestinal parasitic species were recovered; hookworm had the highest prevalence of 32.5% followed by Entamoeba histolytica; 30.3%, Isospora belli, Giardia lamblia, Paragonimus sp. and Taenia sp. had the least prevalence of 1.6% each. The age-specific prevalence was higher in the age group 5-7years (52.5%) and the least was in the 11-13years age group (38.0%). There was a statistically significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in prevalence in different age groups. Males had a higher prevalence (49.7%) than females (40.7%) and the difference (p&lt;0.05) was statistically significant. The odds ratio revealed an association between the sex of the pupils (OR=1.44), Use of stream water (OR=1.514), use of pit latrine (OR=1.196), and open field defaecation (OR=1.126), history of not deworming at all (OR=1.151) and the extent of acquiring intestinal infection. This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in the Bosso Local Government Area and there is a need to step up efforts toward the control of these parasites through improved sanitation and public health education in the schools in particular and the community in general.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633) DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN GOATS AND SHEEP SLAUGHTERED AT FOUR ABATTOIRS IN JIGAWA STATE, NIGERIA 2023-01-23T18:30:38+00:00 Farouk Umar Mohammed Usman Bello Abubakar Salisu Ibrahim Hamisu Garba <p>The study was carried out in the four abattoirs (Dutse, Gumel, Hadejia, and Kazaure) in Jigawa State Nigeria to determine the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in slaughtered goats and sheep and also assess the knowledge of butchers on tuberculosis and its zoonotic potential. A total of 176 blood samples were collected from 100 sheep and 76 goats and the plasma were screened using ID vet sandwich ELISA. Close-ended questionnaires were administered to butchers to assess their knowledge of Mycobacterium bovis infection and tuberculosis. From the results, the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in sheep was found to be 0.01% (1/100) with no positive reactors recorded in goats. Mycobacterium bovis was detected only in sheep slaughtered at the Hadejia abattoir with a prevalence of 3.4% (1/29) with no positive reactors recorded in goats and sheep slaughtered at other abattoirs. Prevalence based on sex indicated positive reactor in males (1.2%: 1/86) with no positive reactors in females. Sheep in the age group 2½ -3 years were found to be positive at 2.9% (1/34). Analysis of the questionnaires indicated that butchers have a low level of knowledge on zoonotic potential and ways of transmission and prevention of tuberculosis. The study has demonstrated the presence of M. bovis infection in sheep at the Hadejia abattoir with no positive reactors among the goats selected in the study. It has also indicated that butchers in the study areas have poor knowledge of M. bovis infection and the various ways of transmission and prevention. The detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in sheep is suggestive of potential transmission to humans and calls for further investigation into the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the location. It is hereby recommended that ruminants (sheep and goats) should be screened for M. bovis infection at the abattoirs and butchers should be educated on the risk of the zoonotic potential of tuberculosis and its various ways of transmission and prevention.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633) ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM URINE OF DIABETIC AND NONDIABETIC PATIENTS IN KADUNA TOWN 2023-01-23T10:50:54+00:00 Stephen Dare Oloninefa Japhet Erasmus Aisoni Susan Kingsley Okeke Patricia Kelechi Falade Joseph Reuben Wartu <p>The isolation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was carried out from the urine of diabetic and non-diabetic patients attending Sabon Tasha General Hospital, Gwamna Awan General Hospital, and Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial Hospital located in Kaduna Town. Eosin Methylene Blue Agar was used for the isolation of E. coli while Mannitol Salt Agar was used for the isolation of S. aureus. The patterns of the antibiotic susceptibility were determined using standard methods and antibiotics discs obtained from Maxi Care Medical, Lagos, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that the isolated S. aureus had the highest percentages of 62.9% and 64.3% in the urine samples of diabetic and non-diabetic patients respectively. S.aureus had the highest mean zone diameter of inhibitions (mm) of 25±2.89 for Streptomycin<br>while E. coli had 19.5±4.13 for Ciprofloxacin. The P values obtained, which were all ≥ 0.05 showed that there were no significant differences in the bacterial prevalence results obtained for diabetic and non-diabetic patients from the three hospitals. The study showed that S. aureus and E. coli were isolated from the urine samples of both diabetic and non diabetic patients while good hand washing and other hygienic practices should be encouraged by both diabetic and non-diabetic patients to prevent the spread of urinary tract infections.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633) ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHENANTHRENE DEGRADING BACILLUS SUBTILIS FROM HYDROCARBON POLLUTED SOIL IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE 2023-01-23T17:46:00+00:00 Olayinka Odunola Usman Isa Obansa Abdullahi Muhammad Bashir Tijjani <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants that accumulate in the soil and sediments due to their insolubility in water and lack of volatility and thus require eco-friendly remedial strategies. A bacterial species isolated and characterized from hydrocarbon polluted soil was identified as Bacillus subtilis and studied for the ability to degrade phenanthrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The optimal conditions for phenanthrene biodegradation were<br>determined to be 27 at a pH of 7.0. A significantly positive relationship was observed between microbial growth and the rate of phenanthrene degradation. The colour of the bacterial colonies on culture media changed to indigo on a plate with indole indicating the presence of the dioxygenase enzyme. The population density of Bacillus subtilis increased from 1.2×106 to 8.1×107cfu/ml on phenanthrene within 20 days, within the same period the percentage degradation of phenanthrene was 67.61%. The rate of degradation decreased from 5.15 mg L-1 day -1in 10 days to 4.35 mg L-1 day -1in 20 days at a degradation constant rate from 0.051K to 0.056K and the half-life was 13.58 days to 12.38 days respectively. This study revealed that a potential PAH strain was present in hydrocarbon polluted soil and can be useful in a detoxifying environment with toxic compounds effectively.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633) SEROPREVALENCE OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION AMONG FEBRILE PATIENTS ATTENDING SOME HOSPITALS WITHIN ADAMAWA STATE IN NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA 2023-01-23T18:03:25+00:00 Ibrahim Isa Iliya Shehu Ndams Maryam Aminu Gloria Chechet Ayo Yila Simon Ella Ekah Elijah <p>Dengue is a major public health concern throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the planet. The actual numb of dengue cases is underreported and many are wrongly classified. The study therefore aimed at establishing the seroprevalence of Dengue virus (DENV) infection in Adamawa state. The study was a cross-sectional study where sociodemographic data and blood samples were collected from three selected government public health facilities. The blood samples were allowed to clot, the sera were separated and screened for dengue virus using ELISA. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS 20). Of the 600 participants, 65% (390/600) had IgM to dengue virus indicating infection with Dengue virus. The IgM was detected with the highest prevalence in Mubi (81.5%: 163/200) while Numan (52%: 104/200) had the lowest. The distribution of DENV infection according to gender shows more exposure in males (66.79%: 181/271) than females (63.61%: 201/316) though the difference was not significant (P&lt;0.05). Individuals between the age group 11-20 years had the highest prevalence (67.39%: 62/92) of DENV infection while the lowest was recorded among those who were aged 51 and above (59.34%: 54/91). The high seroprevalence of IgM to Dengue virus found among febrile patients attending public health facilities in Adamawa state indicates the circulation of the virus in the state and its potential endemicity in this North-eastern state of Nigeria.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633) PREVALENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SALMONELLA SEROVARS FROM WATER SAMPLES IN CATTLE REARING ENVIRONMENT OF JOS AND ENVIRONS, NIGERIA 2023-01-23T18:22:04+00:00 Zainab Tamba Yunusa Adamu Wada Iliya Shehu Ndams Sonnie Joshua Oniye Jacob Kwada Paghi Kwaga Veronica Cibin <p>Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease spread through food that is a global public health concern. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. and its serovars distribution in water sources within cattle-rearing habitats in Jos and environs were investigated in this cross sectional study. A total of 150 water samples were obtained from several nomadic communities from diverse sources (pipe-borne, borehole, well, and stream) across six Local Government Areas (LGAs), namely Jos North, Jos South, and Jos Southeast, Barkin Ladi, Bassa, and Toro were used for the study. The International Standard Organization (ISO) 6579:2002/Amd1:2007 protocol was used for isolation. Serological confirmation of suspected Salmonella colonies was performed at the Office International des Epizooties<br>(OIE)/Italian Reference Laboratory for Salmonella in Italy. The prevalence of Salmonella serovars, water sources, and locations were all correlated using a multivariate principalcomponent analysis (PCA). The overall Salmonella spp prevalence obtained was 12.00 %. The serovars detected include S. Kentucky (2: 1.33%), S. Lille (5: 3.33%), S. Lagos (10: 6.67%), and S. Gatineau (1: 0.67%). The serovars were more prevalent in stream water (9:15.52%) and well water (8: 10.00%), but none were found in borehole water. Salmonella serovars’ highest prevalence and distribution were found in Bassa LGA and Jos South, while none were found in Jos. The four (4) different Salmonella serovars detected are known to be pathogenic and pose serious zoonotic concerns to humans, and this highlights the need for immediate public health intervention to avert salmonellosis outbreaks.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 West African Journal of Microbiology (2955-1633)