Methodology for the Exploration of Rimin Zayan Rutile (TiO2) for Modern Ceramic Production


  • Rahmatu Yunusa Shariff School of Secondary Education (Vocational) Department of Fine and Applied Arts FCE (Technical) Bichi kano. Nigeria.
  • Danladi Musa Munai Department of Industrial Design ATBU Bauchi Nigeria
  • Yusuf Sadiq Otaru Department of Industrial Design ATBU Bauchi Nigeria
  • Umaru Bello Okatengwu Department of Mechanical Engineering(Materials and Metallurgical Engineering) ATBU Bauchi Nigeria.


This study examines the mining and extraction of Rutile (TiO2) in Rimin Zayan, Northern Nigeria, for ceramic glaze formulation. It evaluates the region's unique topographical and environmental characteristics to determine suitable mining methods. The study finds open-pit mining to be the most efficient method for extracting rutile from surface deposits due to its high daily ore extraction capacity. The Becher Process is recommended for processing rutile ore to produce titanium dioxide for ceramic glazes. The study highlights the importance of environmental impact assessments and sustainable mining practices in Rimin Zayan. It emphasizes the need for a balanced approach that considers economic benefits while prioritising environmental conservation. The findings contribute to the field by providing valuable insights into mining practices in the region and can guide future research and mining operations. Recommendations include implementing reclamation and remediation practices post-mining and promoting responsible mining practices to minimize environmental degradation. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive evaluation of mining and extraction methods in Rimin Zayan and underscores the importance of sustainable mining practices for long-term environmental and economic sustainability.




How to Cite

Yunusa Shariff, R. ., Musa Munai, D. ., Sadiq Otaru, Y. ., & Bello Okatengwu, U. . (2023). Methodology for the Exploration of Rimin Zayan Rutile (TiO2) for Modern Ceramic Production. Journal of Engineering, Computational and Applied Sciences (JECAS), 7(3), 20-26. Retrieved from